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Witchcraft & Secret Societies Of Rural England By Nigel Pennick

Exploring the folk customs and magical traditions of guilds and rural fraternities such as the shoemakers and horsemen and the secrets guarded by the free gardeners, witches, toadmen, and bonesmen, Nigel Pennick shows how the common working people of the fens belonged to secret societies based on their specific trade. He details the hidden aspects of rural life that most historians ignore--the magical current that flowed through the lives of working people--and describes the secret rites, ceremonies, oaths, and initiation rituals of the guilds and fraternities to which the folk belonged.